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Hungary - Costs and effectiveness of retraining in Hungary (Inglês)

As an early reformer, Hungary provides valuable lessons for the other transition economies. Since 1989, sharp declines in GDP have been accompanied by rising unemployment and falling real wages. The unemployment rate appears to have stabilized since 1993 but employment continues to decline, reflecting continuing withdrawal from the formal labor market. In response to rising unemployment, the government has instituted labor programs since 1990. Among these programs are unemployment benefits and placement services, retraining, public service employment (public works) and wage subsidies. This paper discusses the different techniques that can be used to evaluate these programs, provides guidance on which techniques are suitable and sufficient in transition economies, summarizes and explains the evaluation results for retraining, and incorporates cost information available from other sources for these programs to illustrate how simple cost-benefit analysis can be used to guide decision-makers with regard to active labor programs.


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    Gill, Indermit S. Dar, Amit

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    Documento para discussão interna

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    Europa e Ásia Central,

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    Hungary - Costs and effectiveness of retraining in Hungary

  • Palavras-chave

    unemployment benefit;retraining program;public service employment;active labor program;active labor market program;eligibility for unemployment benefit;active labor market policy;Active Labor Market Policies;average duration of unemployment;duration of unemployment benefit;treatment group;discounted present value;difference in outcomes;labor market characteristic;labor market intervention;years of schooling;labor market outcome;formal labor market;efficiency of labor;labor force survey;large-scale retraining program;real discount rate;social policy evaluation;finding employment;earnings gain;program impact;transition economy;rising unemployment;financial cost;Transition economies;evaluation result;cost data;Wage Subsidies;wage subsidy;econometric technique;cost information;evaluation technique;program effect;working life;subsequent years;displacement effect;reemployment probability;unemployment rate;real wage;sample mean;ethical questions;high probability;transition countries;reemployment rate;selection bias;program completion;retrain cost;transition country;computer program;reasonable assumption;labor demand;private program;benefit equal;placement service;cost-benefit analysis;program performance;program outcome;aggregate employment;employment creation;high wage;demand-side interventions;unemployment spell;arbitrary results;private cost;job stability;average earning;insurance program;functional form;market institution;econometric evaluation;experimental data;family background;evaluation mechanisms;regular job;positive correlation;estimates yield;feedback mechanism;impact analysis;employment research;family connections;observable variable;public program;public training;aggregate unemployment;wage differential;high unemployment;employment program;average age;specification error;effectiveness evaluation;program administrator;wage gain;empirical specification;regression techniques;equity effects;private training;job loss;social stability;supply-side interventions;evaluation capacity;household wealth;program effectiveness;net employment;earnings impact;political stability;psychological aspect;social experiment;constant price;labor income;Cash Transfer;high-risk group;program behavior;active program;



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