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Gender Differences in Time Use : Allocating Time between the Market and the Household (Inglês)

Important progress toward gender equality has been made in the past decades, but inequalities linked to gender norms, stereotypes, and the unequal distribution of housework and childcare responsibilities persist. Lifetime events such as marriage and parenthood bring substantial changes in time use among women and men. This paper updates and reinforces the findings of previous studies by analyzing gender differences in the allocation of time among market work and unpaid domestic work. Results from the analysis of time use patterns in 19 countries of different income levels and from various regions suggest that women specialize in unpaid domestic and care work and men specialize in market work. The paper employs propensity score matching to assess the marriage and parenthood "penalty" on time use patterns over the lifecycle. The findings indicate that women of prime working age are the most penalized on a host of measures, including labor market participation, unpaid domestic work, and leisure time. Men are not necessarily penalized for, and sometimes benefit from, marriage or parenthood.


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    Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina, Viollaz,Mariana

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    Documento de trabalho sobre pesquisa de políticas

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    Regiões Mundiais,

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  • Nome do documento

    Gender Differences in Time Use : Allocating Time between the Market and the Household

  • Palavras-chave

    Gender Gap; domestic work; amount of leisure time; gender division of labor; higher level of education; female labor force participation; children at home; degree of specialization; labor market regulation; unpaid work; social security benefit; job security regulation; women with child; propensity score matching; income tax regime; implications for policy; labor market surveys; data collection mode; labor force survey; care of child; care for child; age of child; concept of time; work long hour; female labor supply; choice of method; country fixed effect; barrier to woman; enforcement of labor; paid labor force; labor market outcome; effect of parenthood; labor market participation; personal care; gender difference; working age; marital status; productive activity; childbearing age; rural area; domestic activity; married woman; young woman; young men; family formation; domestic chore; gender norm; household characteristic; household survey; young adult; rural woman; married man; educational level; tax treatment; rural setting; market activity; minimum wage; employment rate; gender parity; leisure activity; collected information; female counterparts; wage employment; educated people; response rate; parental leave; geographic area; urban woman; individual level; unequal distribution; Gender Equality; bargaining power; open access; maternity leave; domestic sphere; family network; productive worker; compulsory education; development policy; prime age; family responsibility; elderly woman; income earner; gender inequalities; national account; high employment; younger cohort; literacy level; young adulthood; formal sector; Gender Inequality; fetching water; female employment; personal service; social activities; reasonable estimate; potential implication; feminist economics; tax credit; increasing unemployment; childcare services; net wage; survey instrument; aggregate data; survey data; household affect; regression approach; productive years; household formation; poverty threshold; paternity leave; causal effect; male youth; inequality link; indicator variable; quality datum; high penalty; comparable data; older woman; primary task; family characteristic; research assistance; individual decision; accurate estimate; divorced woman; single man; care provision; heavy burden; similar age; tax rate; rural residence; negative correlation; fuel wood; geographic location; young child; wood collection; urban setting; random sample; household production



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