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Addressing the Human Capital Crisis : A Public Expenditure Review for Human Development Sectors in Iraq (Inglês)

Iraq, at present, is facing a human capital crisis, despite having been one of the early investors in health and education, in the MENA region, in the 70s and 80s. The World Bank’s Human Capital Index (HCI), shows that a child born in Iraq, today, will reach, on average, only 41 percent of her potential productivity when she grows up, compared to the 57- percent average of the MENA region. The HCI measures the amount of human capital that a child, born today, can expect to attain at the age of 18, thereby conveying the productivity of the next generation of a country’s workforce—a key contributor to economic growth. Iraq’s HCI is among the lowest in the world, and is lower than that of any country in the MENA region, with the exception of Yemen. In addition, large disparities in human capital outcomes persist between regions, and between urban and rural areas, to the disadvantage of northern governorates most affected by the conflicts. Women, Internally Displaced People (IDP), and families with very low incomes, are further disadvantaged.

Detalhes

  • Data do documento

    2021/05/28

  • TIpo de documento

    Revisão de Despesas Públicas

  • No. do relatório

    159617

  • Nº do volume

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    2

  • País

    Iraque,

  • Região

    Oriente Médio e Norte da África,

  • Data de divulgação

    2021/05/30

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Nome do documento

    Addressing the Human Capital Crisis : A Public Expenditure Review for Human Development Sectors in Iraq

  • Palavras-chave

    Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions; Pensions and Social Insurance; Damage and Needs Assessment; Program for International Student; school-age child; enrollment by level; Human Resources for Health; health expenditure per capita; life expectancy at birth; access to quality services; household education expenditure; Out of Pocket Spending; efficiency of public spending; public expenditure on health; provision of health service; public investment in education; quality of education service; lack of health insurance; composition of public spending; Board of Executive Directors; gulf cooperation council; capacity-building need; human capital; human capital outcomes; years of schooling; total fertility rate; effective service delivery; oil price volatility; human capital formation; general government expenditure; standard of living; Internally Displaced Person; source of funding; public sector entity; social protection system; expenditure per student; million people; social health insurance; public sector employment; budget execution rate; student learn outcome; education and health; Essential Medicines List; public health expenditure; children and youth; per capita health; risk of morbidity; High Blood Pressure; Public Financial Management; child health outcomes; public sector reform; capital investment planning; net attendance ratio; lower secondary education; old age dependency; primary care services; country economic memorandum; access to water; health information; delivery of service; trade and investment; price of oil; Early childhood education; Labor Market Flexibility; good governance principles; health and nutrition; Human Immunodeficiency Virus; health information system; gross national income; investments in education; influx of refugees; data envelopment analysis; infant mortality rate; continuity of care; local pharmaceutical production; external affairs; comments and feedback; financing information; purchasing power parity; social protection sector; Value for Money; quality of care; procurement of drugs; implicit pension debt; intergovernmental fiscal relation; high fertility rate; human capital accumulation; benefit incidence analysis; public education spending; rate of growth; Access to Education; dimension of inequality; catastrophic health expenditure; Student Learning Assessment; conflict and violence; flow of fund; human capital development; health sector spending; low enrollment rate; health spending level; labor market outcome; primary health care; global oil demand; proven oil reserves; fiscal space; investment budget; comparator country; general budget; pension system; oil revenue; government budget; Wage Bill; health workforce

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