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RAINS-ASIA : an assessment model for acid deposition in Asia (Inglês)

Increased energy consumption, generally linked to an improved standard of living in many Asian countries, also presages serious environmental consequences at the local, regional, and global levels. The combustion of fossil fuels like coal emits sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which when oxidized, transported, and deposited form acid rain. The RAINS-ASIA model is an integrated assessment tool designed to study future energy development strategies and their implications for acid rain, and to help policymakers and scientists in Asian countries explore cost-effective abatement strategies. In short, the model allows the user to look ahead and understand what actions could be taken now to prevent future damage. This project is a collaborative effort of several research institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America. The report provides an overview of the model and some results of analyses that have been conducted as part of the RAINS-ASIA program. The model builds on the legacy of its European counterpart to provide a spatially detailed, comprehensive analysis of all stages of the acidification phenomenon: energy demand, supply, and production; emissions; atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying compounds; and environmental effects of current and predicted levels of acid deposition. Priorities for further refining and updating the model are listed in the final chapter.


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    Downing, Robert J. Ramankutty, Ramesh Shah, Jitendra J.

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    RAINS-ASIA : an assessment model for acid deposition in Asia

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    electric power industry;acid deposition;acid rain;Energy;sulfur emission;sulfur dioxide;United Nations Environment Programme;emissions of sulfur dioxide;emissions of air pollutant;sulfur dioxide emission;total primary energy demand;increase in energy consumption;rate of population growth;increase in energy demand;air pollution problem;national energy demand;sulfur deposition;primary energy production;urban air quality;acid rain problem;irreversible environmental damage;volatile organic compound;total energy demand;Center Research;regional economic growth;gross domestic product;asian countries;fuel type;monitoring data;atomic energy commission;rapid economic development;economic growth forecast;global climate change;severe environmental damage;standard of living;demand for energy;end-use energy consumption;wageningen agricultural university;energy research institute;energy development strategy;damage to crops;integrated assessment models;emission control strategy;number of stations;binding international agreement;gdp growth rate;energy consumption level;large combustion plant;future energy demand;energy consumption pattern;regional air pollution;flow of air;air quality issue;fossil fuel use;exchange of technology;types of fuel;emission control measure;transboundary air pollution;exchange of data;geographic information system;declining fish populations;energy consumption growth;acidification of soils;demand for coal;emission reduction strategy;increasing energy efficiency;Southern and Eastern;world health organization;reduction in emission;dominant energy source;alternative energy development;air pollution effects;planning and design;emission control technology;burning fossil fuel;nitrogen oxide;energy scenario;monitoring program;acidification problem;monitoring network;ecosystem damage;economic sector;environmental problem;energy policies;fuel substitution;environmental consequence;energy pathway;surface water;input data;atmospheric transport;nitrogen compound;harmful effect;acidic rain;pollution level;cost of energy production;long-term strategy;annual emission;multilateral institution;abatement measure;future trends;development policy;international response;point source;sensitive ecosystems;ecosystem sensitivity;socioeconomic data;research institution;tree species;research institutions;environmental research;toxic metal;agricultural land;Environmental Policy;industrial area;total fuel;



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