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Economic strategy and structural adjustment in Tanzania (Inglês)

In Tanzania, the need for structural adjustment in the 1980s had its origins in both the negative events in the international economy and the failure to adjust policies swiftly enough in response to the initial shocks. In many respects, the evolution of the Tanzanian economy since independence and the events that led to structural adjustment are quite similar to those experienced by many other African countries. This paper discusses the economic strategy as well as the structural adjustment in Tanzania. The first part of the report focuses on the origin of the economic crisis. The second part discusses the politics of reform. Part three explains the reform process. The distributional impact of reform is reviewed in part four of the paper and the sustainability of the reform process in part five. Part six discusses the role of donors and, finally, the paper concludes with a brief discussion on the vision of the reform period.


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    Van Arkadie, Brian

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    Economic strategy and structural adjustment in Tanzania

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    economic and social policy;political economy of reform;external terms of trade;public sector investment program;foreign exchange;economic crisis;system of price;human capital stock;resistance to change;Economic Policy;parallel economy;exogenous shock;political leadership;mode of production;universal primary education;fundamental structural changes;balance of payment;social service provision;commission of inquiry;unit of production;rural development strategy;implementation of policies;disruption of service;economic policy instrument;economics research;senior civil servants;right of access;private grain trader;allocation of resource;foreign exchange control;overvalued exchange rate;delivery of service;private economic activity;macroeconomic policy instrument;public sector monopoly;bilateral aid donor;diversion of income;economies of scale;wages and salary;response to crisis;public sector administration;foreign exchange shortage;maintenance of infrastructure;colonial currency;structural adjustment package;availability of imports;economic reform;government control;Economic Management;export production;reform process;scarce resource;mixed economy;managerial capacity;black market;state apparatus;rural population;policy regime;Exchange Rates;public servant;public support;local trade;state control;real resource;export crop;public ownership;heavy burden;political authority;systemic failure;marketing board;oil shock;export sector;institutional change;state capacity;ruling party;Command economy;political implication;industrial investment;financial system;party leadership;political change;real income;scarce commodities;price decontrol;social system;monetary instability;parastatal sector;national interest;peasant farm;destructive impact;grassroots institution;resource availability;Tax Administration;tax base;political machine;financial control;basic good;national politics;privileged groups;private use;bureaucratic system;national vision;inflationary pressure;adjustment process;political goal;passive resistance;local interest;effective performance;survival strategy;urban dweller;living standard;extreme scarcity;price system;state action;middle class;minority communities;allocation system;fiscal imbalance;educate elite;cumulative effect;market system;social instability;international economy;administrative allocation;equitable development;vested interests;price movement;political momentum;market activity;business ethic;asian model;individual behavior;reformed system;political institution;legal requirement;fiscal obligation;informal rule;price adjustment;public statement;government activity;income policy;national model;effective marketing;popular distrust;Income policies;craft production;small-scale agriculture;private activity;radical change;business interest;parastatal reform;social implications;market economy;food production;government initiative;liberalization measure;Industrial Policy;world community;great power;inland revenue;customs staff;territorial claim;political power;local market;primary production;agricultural incentive;budgetary burden;institutional policy;state intervention;export earnings;domestic sources;rural settlement;international market;resource base;average productivity;export performance;international term;import substitution;road repair;domestic economy;domestic saving;Public Spending;inadequate provision;capacity expansion;Industrial Policies;infrastructural bottleneck;economic institution;imported inputs;political scientist;political interest;political instability;public capital;exogenous factor;fund development;acute crisis;coffee price;political events;Socialist economies;real value;negative effect;donor community;domestic policies;public expenditure;tea prices;political mobilization;socialist system;production area;independent country;environmental degradation;output loss;cashew nut;export base;market incentive;rural area;institutional weakness;marketing arrangement;coastal area;donor support;military spending



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