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Entering the city : emerging evidence and practices with safety nets in urban areas (Inglês)

Most safety net programs in low and middle-income countries have hitherto been conceived for rural areas. Yet as the global urban population increases and poverty urbanizes, it becomes of utmost importance to understand how to make safety nets work in urban settings. This paper discusses the process of urbanization, the peculiar features of urban poverty, and emerging experiences with urban safety net programs in dozens of countries. It does so by reviewing multidisciplinary literature, examining household survey data, and presenting a compilation of case studies from a first generation of programs. The paper finds that urban areas pose fundamentally different sets of opportunities and challenges for social protection, and that safety net programs are at the very beginning of a process of urban adaptation. The mixed-performance and preliminary nature of the experiences suggest to put a premium on learning and evidence-generation. This may include revisiting some key design choices and better connecting safety nets to spatial, economic, and social services agendas compelling to urban areas.


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    Entering the city : emerging evidence and practices with safety nets in urban areas

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    urbanization;rural area;urban safety net;Social Protection &Labor Global;safety net program;urban cost of living;early stage of development;conditional cash transfer program;high level of urbanization;active labor market program;social protection program;urban population;urban population growth;urban poor;social protection system;household survey data;pace of urbanization;economies of scale;global urban population;political economy dynamic;transfers in cash;distribution of population;public sanitation facilities;capacity of city;prevention of violence;country case study;agglomeration economy;generation of knowledge;perception of poverty;portability of benefits;form of share;process of development;labor market activity;rural poverty rate;food consumption pattern;accumulation of skills;diffusion of innovation;form of discrimination;natural population growth;urbanization of poverty;food supply chain;process of discovery;urban poverty assessment;public safety net;labor market intervention;labor market need;country income group;form of poverty;urban informal settlements;public works program;high opportunity cost;Social Safety Nets;locus of poverty;exchange of knowledge;standard of living;slum upgrading program;large metropolitan areas;water supply system;urban context;urban agglomeration;social assistance;urbanization process;benefit structure;urban setting;administrative boundary;urban development;spatial economic;Learning and Innovation Credit;poor household;urban dweller;urban growth;global output;metropolitan economy;wage employment;upward mobility;voucher program;urban household;social intermediation;social pension;scale economy;population trend;Urban Planning;working poor;total poverty;global population;economic geography;urban dynamic;million people;Urban Infrastructure;Retail Sector;financing capacity;rural quintile;productive activity;positive externality;Housing Policy;urban opportunity;comparative advantage;urban economy;transport cost;net migration;urbanization level;urban consumer;net portfolio;governance arrangement;social insurance;slum household;market fundamentals;transport network;agricultural productivity;manufactured goods;empirical regularity;constant return;cross-country evidence;urbanized area;sectoral composition;analytical tool;regional economics;increasing return;factor mobility;External Economies;building regulation;cumulative causation;product demand;spatial extent;squatter settlement;cross-country data;agricultural employment;rural setting;economic prosperity;decentralized decision;central places;slum indicator;public authority;metropolitan region;concentric rings;spatial economics;regional science;unskilled worker;land market;land rent;gravitational field;market potential;mobile populations;regional growth;input supply;residential density;valuable knowledge;technological spillover;municipal boundaries;firm location;preferential treatment;experienced worker;seasonal fluctuation;public resource;labor supply;labor incentive;urban space;spatial distribution;application process;natural growth;demographic dynamic;food entitlement;spatial planning;learning process;outreach activity;toilet facility;urban neighborhood;education material;learning need;pension scheme;informal network;physical mobility;income volatility;Ethnic Minorities;urbanization reviews;Sanitation Services;scarce resource;subsidy scheme;rural program;seasonal migrant;global coverage;administrative region;poverty status;employment composition;subsidy programs;negative externality;basic water;residency status;self-employment program;school feeding;social indicator;Informal Jobs;labor participation;local capacity;inclusive cities;support measure;social media;world population;behavioral economics;Rural Poor;unemployed youth;research assistance;strategic guidance;ongoing work;allowance program;refugee population;spatial concentration;water payment;social program;sustainable livelihood;food bank;informal provision;social inclusion;urban planner



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