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Poverty and income distribution in Brazil (Inglês)

This article refutes the contention that Brazil's development has not benefitted the poor and that rapid growth has had a polarizing effect on the distribution of income. Using the National Household Expenditure Survey of 1974-75, it concludes that the income levels of the poor have been underestimated in the past. The evidence also suggests that occupational and regional variables are powerful determinants of income stratification. Wage rate statistics convey information about long-term trends in income. The article notes considerable increases in rural wages during the 1970s as well as wage improvements in the urban informal sector. The article reviews statistical evidence bearing on distribution. The distribution of income in Brazil is undoubtedly very skewed. However, it is not possible to come to conclusions about changes that might have occurred in the degree of inequality over time. Finally, the article includes data on the distribution of education and the distribution of life expectancy and notes improvement over time in both. The Brazilian population census of 1980 is used to update some of the statistical material.


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    América Latina e Caribe,

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    Poverty and income distribution in Brazil

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    project debt;access to safe water;cost of living index;small farmer;rural area;income growth;regional per capita income;transaction cost;per capita income growth;Agriculture;minimum wage;terms of trade;sale of asset;income family;monetary income;money income;source income;access to land;agricultural labor force;total personal income;categories of employment;source of income;structure of employment;urban informal sector;extent of poverty;total labor force;growth in agriculture;unpaid family worker;rural wage rate;labor force participation;degree of inequality;household income;income class;farm household;national account;agricultural employment;Manufacturing;population per physician;farm wage rates;measurement of poverty;reduction in poverty;consumer purchasing power;measure of inequality;natural population growth;agricultural slack season;agricultural policy analysis;degree of penetration;real output growth;real wage rate;world war ii;accelerated economic growth;average wage rate;change in employment;measure of poverty;household expenditure survey;small business owner;high school level;rate of inflation;absolute poverty line;reduction of poverty;heads of family;rural income;regional productivity;regional cost;agricultural value;Labor Market;Real estate;metropolitan area;household head;farm income;middle management;personal service;variable rate;unskilled wage;factory worker;income figure;census data;income data;domestic servant;agricultural household;modern sector;large farmer;net saving;Employment Change;agricultural productivity;labor legislation;electric light;wage differential;statistical evidence;regional distribution;small cities;employment trend;industrial labor;farm business;Exchange Rates;landless farm;welfare services;institutional forces;domestic service;social diversity;school enrollment;standard definition;wage work;landless household;landless laborer;wage worker;observed increase;downward mobility;private cost;grassroots organization;household survey;national household;nutritional requirement;government effort;technological change;agricultural crop;rural-urban migration;farm family;productivity gain;urban employment;current income;census questionnaire;disposable income;federal district;current expenditure;wage increase;financial asset;retained earnings;size distribution;family welfare;mortgage debt;downward adjustment;international standard;national income;transfer income;participation rate;manual labor;manufacturing establishment;individual mobility;construction rates;piece rate;small-scale manufacturing;employment structure;young men;Public Services;professional qualification;wage employment;agricultural worker;direct consumption;rural worker;labor use;urban wage;commodity stock;daily earnings;car industry;consumer good;rural laborer;consumer goods;rural farm;life expectancy;wage stagnation;population census;price difference;rural price;regional value;urban price;average price;middle class;welfare indicator;rural south;urban agricultural policy;agricultural laborer;manual worker;repair shop;poverty group;economic reform;urban poor;living condition;population increase;urban population;rural population;brazilian family;return migration;labor turnover;urban counterpart;occupational category;real growth;agricultural sector;highway expenditure;budget constraint;productivity growth;individual income;Higher Education;employment opportunity;cultural change;operations research;employment opportunities;wage data;income share;urban differential;demographic data;land rent;unprotected sector;wage ratio;income ratio;government worker;rental price;industry wage;agricultural land;absolute income;increased opportunity;urban growth;unreported income;farm productivity;television receivers;social indicator;capital expenditure;consumer durable;electricity source;radio ownership;Cash Income;industrial survey;weighted average;



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