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Preventive resettlement of populations at risk of disaster : Experiences from Latin America (Inglês)

The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region has the highest urbanization rate in the developing world, with 80 percent of the population living in cities. It is also the region that, after Asia, has the highest number of disasters a year. Major disasters have led governments to develop legislative and institutional frameworks for disaster risk management; these reflect a paradigm shift from an approach that focuses on emergency responses to one that reduces the risk factors by incorporating disaster risk management strategies in the development planning agendas. Preventive resettlement of at-risk populations is now being implemented, among other disaster risk reduction measures. This publication presents case studies illustrating how various countries have incorporated this measure in innovative ways. Chapter I analyzes global natural disaster trends and their impacts. It also studies these trends in LAC and the principal factors that increase the vulnerability to natural disasters. Chapter II analyzes resettlement as a risk reduction measure and describes the objectives and methodology of the cases studied. The next four chapters present the findings of each. In those countries, either due to the impacts of major disasters such as in Colombia and Guatemala, or to recurrent events, such as floods in Argentina and Brazil, risk reduction plans include preventive resettlement. Each case highlights experiences that can be replicated, from identifying at-risk populations to the post-resettlement phase. The examples describe different methodological and management tools for future processes, and key lessons about wise and unwise actions taken. The cases also raise various questions for further research to enhance both knowledge and practices in human resettlement.




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