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Expanding access and enhancing the economic benefits of education in the Maldives : challenges and prospects (Inglês)

Human capital is the central determinant of economic well-being and social advancement in the modern global economy. The key characteristic that distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income economies is the knowledge content of their economic activities and production processes. Industry, agriculture and especially services have become increasingly knowledge and skill intensive in recent years. Further, the dominance of knowledge and skills is increasing at an accelerating rate. Among advanced economies, for instance, the education levels of their populations is the single most important factor determining their economic performance [Hanushek and Welch (2006), Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)]. Among middle-income and low-income countries, too, economies that have high education attainment enjoy considerable welfare gains [Fasih (2008), Patrinos and Psacharopoulos (2011)]. Human resource development is particularly important for the economic development of small states [Martin and Bray (2011)]. Education also produces a variety of social benefits. These include healthier and better nourished families and children; the creation of the enlightened citizenry needed for a modern liberal democracy; and the promotion of social mobility [OECD (2012)]. This paper offers an overview of the general education system and the current status of access and participation in the Maldives. This is followed by a discussion of the economic and social benefits of investment in education. The paper concludes by discussing options to expand access and participation at education levels where the Maldives lags behind other comparable small island economies.


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    Aturupane,Harsha, Shojo,Mari

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    Sul da Ásia,

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    Expanding access and enhancing the economic benefits of education in the Maldives : challenges and prospects

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    Demographic and Health Survey;net primary enrollment;gross enrollment rate;Primary and Secondary Education;female labor force participation;Benefits of Education;infant and child health;per capita income;infant and child mortality;stages of education;vocational secondary school;improvement of education quality;small island economies;Higher Education;benefits of investment;high unemployment rate;net enrollment rate;soft skills;maternal education;small island countries;marginal effect;wealth index;secondary education enrollment;primary lower secondary;general education system;quality of education;health care service;household and individual;universal primary education;language and communication;health of individuals;labor market characteristic;global knowledge economy;higher education sector;secondary school student;primary education grade;space child;gross primary enrollment;arrangement of classroom;diseconomies of scale;equity of access;upper secondary level;economics of education;participation in school;normal school curriculum;loans to student;human development index;high primary enrollment;gross national income;vocational secondary education;comments and feedback;upper secondary education;Science and Technology;private education institution;private higher education;total labor force;female unemployment rate;gross enrollment ratio;senior secondary school;primary enrollment rate;quality assurance system;Medium of Instruction;secondary enrollment rate;quality assurance mechanism;formal school curriculum;Equity of Education;impact of education;global labor market;secondary education level;health and nutrition;problem solving skill;dominant economic activity;tertiary education system;educated woman;wealth quintile;child nutrition;vocational subject;children's nutrition;global economy;student-teacher ratio;uneducated mothers;marital status;inhabited islands;advanced economy;extracurricular activity;skill base;education official;Rural Sector;private-public partnership;teacher salary;professional job;small states;skill shortage;school system;positive relationship;comprehensive school;supply-side policy;tourism sector;private investment;education cycle;school teacher;program development;policy formulation;education agency;internal review;Private School;active learning;state school;adult life;youth worker;work ethic;sea transport;earnings prospect;class size;lingua franca;small country;gender parity;universal enrollment;dispersed population;economic welfare;secondary class;cognitive ability;small school;expatriate employees;primary schooling;econometric analysis;working age;age variable;urban sector;married woman;negative effect;managerial skill;company management;investment climate;opportunity cost;household size;family size;standard error;management skill;household characteristic;family health;Infant Mortality;female education;nutrition knowledge;age cohort;school enrollment;social advancement;consultation workshop;regression line;free education;welfare gains;poor household;children of ages;participation rate;economic prosperity;public examination;natural beauty;Social Mobility;Vocational Training;education attainment;Learning and Innovation Credit;production process;knowledge content;low-income economy;middle-income economy;medical facility;skill need;common feature;health practice;high performance;external review;reservation wage;mother tongue;vocational skill;vocational school;international economy;cognitive skill;learning skill;quality school;Vocational Education;academic performance;knowledge society;global phenomenon;academic skill;general population;academic subject;Teachers;



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