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Innovation for productivity growth in Ecuador : unlocking constraints through horizontal and cluster development policies : resumen ejecutivo (Espanhol)

Over the last decade, Ecuador experienced inclusive growth fueled by a favorable external environment that financed a vast expansion of the public sector. The country is now facing severe external and fiscal challenges due to the significant extended fall in oil prices and the appreciation of the U.S. dollar. Since mid-2014, Ecuador has lost almost half of its merchandise export income due to the decline in oil prices. Oil revenues averaged 13.2 percent of GDP between 2011 and 2014 and one-third of total fiscal revenues. The fall in oil and other commodity prices on global markets has opened broad macroeconomic imbalances and exposed Ecuador's pre-existing vulnerabilities. As a fully dollarized economy with limited savings from the boom years, Ecuador cannot soften adjustment via a nominal depreciation or a drawdown of macroeconomic buffers. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar and the major currency depreciations in neighboring trading partners also place pressures on external competitiveness. Furthermore, access to foreign borrowing has become more limited. Consequently, the burden of the adjustment falls on fiscal and income policies.


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    Rubalcaba Bermejo,Luis, Slavova,Stefka, Kim,Maria Deborah, Merino De Lucas,Fernando, Franco-Temple,Ernesto, Victor,Jessica Michelle, Ferrer Morera,Gloria

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    Documento de Trabalho

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    América Latina e Caribe,

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    resumen ejecutivo

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    information and communication technology;total factor productivity;Poverty & Inequality;small and medium enterprise;barriers to innovation;access to finance;Agricultural Value Chain;fruit and vegetable;chamber of commerce;cold chain equipment;local labor market;global value chain;private investment;modern innovation policy;regional development strategy;high poverty rate;lack of capability;allocation of resource;Science and Technology;renewable water resource;positive spillover effect;business development service;barrier to entry;access to certification;investment climate barrier;exchange of information;private sector engagement;intellectual property regime;impact on sales;Water and Land;government and business;availability of information;availability of technology;culture of innovation;gaps in productivity;private sector competitiveness;Type of Investment;adoption of ict;information on market;economies of scale;Innovation and Productivity;cost of innovation;intellectual property rights;impact on productivity;knowledge intensive business;income due;high oil price;income growth rate;labor income growth;international experiences show;balance of payment;reallocation of resource;access to information;productivity growth;business innovation;Innovation Policies;national innovation;innovation outcome;policy option;cluster development;matching grant;econometric model;innovation activity;business performance;innovation performance;technological innovation;meat product;human capital;positive impact;market information;testing laboratory;increase productivity;business service;global market;survey data;fresh fruit;fresh vegetable;public intervention;productivity gain;managerial skill;critical data;export growth;government investment;wood product;foreign market;research institute;competition policy;quality system;professional association;textile industry;essential oil;Industrial Policy;Industrial Policies;market barrier;knowledge diffusion;investment choice;specialty coffee;market coordination;professional service;agglomeration economy;innovation network;economic diversification;extension service;business enterprise;business finance;business practice;econometric result;labor productivity;national market;Public Spending;firm-level innovation;coffee grower;Technology Transfer;public expenditure;technology center;improved resource;extension program;awareness campaign;technology expert;innovation promotion;knowledge gap;extension center;incentive system;strategic analysis;local producer;high share;conformity assessment;local actors;innovation program;Innovation Awards;innovation initiative;data compilation;counterpart funding;technology system;national science;economic institution;credit line;macroeconomic issue;econometric technique;firm productivity;technology adoption;foreign exchange;fiscal situation;macroeconomic constraints;international standard;quality certification;macroeconomic situation;employment generation;coordinated action;coffee sector;long-term effect;market failure;institutional framework;merchandise export;cocoa bean;future tax;recovery process;quantitative data;government spending;external shock;sustainability policy;Macroeconomic Stability;reducing inequality;development work;diversification strategy;financial resource;previous paragraph;public support;manufacturing industry;subsidiary right;wooden furniture;wood industry;distinct innovation;local sale;foreign sale;financial market;domestic sale;product innovation;financial source;external financing;innovation funding;external source;macroeconomic context;patent registration;business sector;export industry;process innovation;international market;innovative company;economic sector;international benchmarking;company operating;qualified technical;firm innovation;market sophistication;relative gain;administrative support;low rate;capital-intensive sector;Income policies;income policy;macroeconomic environment;policy priority;foreign borrowing;policy statement



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