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Poverty and basic needs (Inglês)

The self-perpetuating plight of the absolute poor has tended to cut them off from the economic progress that has taken place elsewhere in their own societies. They have remained largely outside the entire development effort, able neither to contribute much to it, nor to benefit fairly from it. Unless specific efforts are made to bring them into the development process, no feasible degree of traditional welfare, or simple redistribution of already inadequate national income, can fundamentally alter the circumstances that impoverish them. The only practical hope, then, of reducing absolute poverty is to assist the poor to become more productive. The World Bank has put a major emphasis on that strategy in its lending operations over the last several years; projects are specifically designed to enhance the earning power of the poor. This series of articles describes how the Bank's approach with its emphasis on basic human needs has evolved, and why it is more finely tuned to the Bank's objective than previous approaches; country experience in providing for basic needs; sectoral policies for meeting basic needs; a strategy for reducing malnutrition; evidence that policies to meet basic needs can aid growth; a discussion of a pragmatic approach to poverty alleviation; and an international perspective on basic needs.


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    Streeten, Paul, Stewart, Frances, Burki, Shahid Javid, Berg, Alan, Hicks, Norman L., Chenery, Hollis B., Ul Haqq, Mahbub

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    Poverty and basic needs

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    life expectancy at birth;primary school age child;rate of population growth;food and agriculture organization;poor health and hygiene;average per capita income;rate of growth;basic human need;rate of literacy;centrally planned economy;inequality in income;effect on health;high infant mortality;improvements in health;economic development strategy;Urban Health Care;curative health care;curative health services;adult literacy rate;country case study;gnp per capita;world war ii;means of production;food and nutrition;generation of children;redistribution of resource;female life expectancy;absolute poverty line;health and nutrition;universal primary education;demand for labor;process of development;areas of production;social security benefit;system of subsidy;form of investment;Supply of Water;forms of education;provision of service;primary health care;equal income distribution;availability of resource;oil producing country;Public Services;material need;absolute poor;basic good;clean water;reducing inequality;national income;market force;health standards;government intervention;sectoral priority;subsistence farmer;small farm;macroeconomic framework;Basic Education;reduced inequality;safe water;middle class;landless laborer;educational budget;national policy;progressive taxation;industrial production;asset redistribution;modern sector;long hour;moderate poverty;surplus labor;live birth;industrial nations;rural area;urban poor;minimum balance;political circumstances;socialist government;Socialist countries;manufacturing sector;poor child;inequitable distribution;tax income;productive investment;investment ratio;living condition;poor household;short supply;mixed economy;egalitarian distribution;Sanitation Services;summer session;children's education;Learning and Innovation Credit;double shift;political factor;substantial variation;education opportunity;political constraint;human capital;educated adult;political pressure;working poor;Child care;public consumption;aggregate resources;government service;school system;productive resource;vested interests;productive activity;full employment;market sector;household sector;Political Economy;successful country;rural-urban migration;personal income;parasitic disease;unsafe water;development policy;real income;social indicator;essential goods;political right;cash crop;dairy farm;aid budget;nonfood item;scarce resource;large families;small family;cultural identities;food price;urban food;resource mobilization;short period;indigenous values;individual freedom;human beings;household good;policy planning;political appeal;formal sector;national strategy;traditional welfare;personal circumstance;social policies;social policy;multilateral donor;poverty alleviation;labor utilization;sector priorities;promoting growth;credit institution;Land Ownership;development thinking;foreign trade;Technology Transfer;nutritious food;adequate income;male head;rural health;sector programs;urban income;income earning;marxist theory;lower price;labor productivity;income expansion;eradicating poverty;labor shortage;operational term;net effect;action programs;caloric intake;household income;food subsidies;adequate shelter;food ration;universal health;oil exporter;capital surplus;existing capacity;national economy;health problem;



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