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A brief history of urban development and upgrading in Swaziland (Inglês)

This history illustrates a number of themes encountered in Swaziland that faces developing countries and their external partners in Africa and beyond. Firstly, the history relates the experience of a small and comparatively insular country in addressing complex challenges deriving from rapid urbanization and, as a result, the growing need to adapt governance systems and structures. A second key issue is the challenge that small nations like Swaziland face in attracting assistance. In the absence of significant lending programs, institutions like IBRD have limited resources available for advisory services, particularly given the ineligibility of middle income countries for most trust funds available in Africa. The third theme that emerges is the centrality of land. Access to land in Swaziland is a cross-cutting issue that influences outcomes in many sectors. A fourth important theme relates to the 'generational shift' which is a necessary concomitant of any serious decentralization process. Finally, the history demonstrates that despite all the challenges faced, Swaziland is persisting with its interdependent governance and urbanization reform agendas. Although Swaziland's long-term governance and urban development strategy was not formally defined in a donor approved format, all the elements of a sound intergovernmental reform and decentralization process can be seen, retrospectively, to be in place. This long-term strategy, which is similar to those being implemented by a growing number of governments in the sub-Saharan region, should guide partner support for the required generational shifts.


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    Groot, David De, Lowsby,John A.

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  • Nome do documento

    A brief history of urban development and upgrading in Swaziland

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    Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building;informal settlement;development partner;life expectancy at birth;access to land;urban development strategy;gnp per capita;demand for land;sites and services;local government jurisdiction;land tenure issues;process of reform;return on investment;cost loan;cost of loan;borrow from ibrd;sequence of events;city strategic framework;environmental health indicator;service and infrastructure;sewage treatment works;data on income;agriculture and industry;constraints to development;legislation and regulation;world war ii;gross domestic product;local government system;gross primary enrollment;reform process;land use;long-term strategy;white settlers;legislative reform;governance system;serviced land;physical planning;intergovernmental reform;uncontrolled development;donor resource;urban population;international agency;land allocation;rural divide;rural area;Advisory services;community participation;external partner;mortgage finance;social indicator;small nations;urban management;home ownership;industrial worker;investment cost;low-income housing;small country;land concession;urban administration;government regime;land access;full-time employment;common custom;currency parity;trading operations;temporary residence;economic sanction;fuel depots;export good;government service;urban land;informal housing;field survey;formal sector;Population Density;Infectious Disease;household head;rural dweller;asbestos mine;infrastructure provision;adequate supply;colonial administration;human settlement;Housing Institutions;living condition;housing development;road building;housing estate;scarce land;financial return;low-income group;draft policy;pulp mill;iron ore;coal mine;demographic data;separately funds;infrastructure system;rural housing;land management;administrative capital;urban affair;baseline data;temperate climate;township development;financial resource;government subsidy;commercial agriculture;mission school;financial reform;secure tenure;nominal rent;Land Ownership;international boundary;political entity;geographical position;limited partner;city resource;traditional authority;white farmer;land issue;city limits;citywide infrastructure;community liaison;allocation process;hot spot;colonial rule;colonial legislation;dual system;governance reform;Population Growth;river water;intergovernmental fiscal;devolution process;take time;institutional memory;sectoral investment;medium enterprise;colonial period;urban growth;colonial era;external resource;external agencies;concessional financing;asset creation;Exchange Rates;idf grant;external standard;urban boundary;traditional form;rural setting;unsanitary condition;Gender Equality;community resource;urban employment;community expectation;engineering design;urban expansion;self-help housing;cost housing;emergency measure;treated water;communal standpipe;vulnerable group;urban sector;secure access;gender need;loan negotiation;engineering standard;community involvement;allocation principle;city council;capital plan;sustainable solution;institutional analysis;administrative development;rural land;traditional model;constitutional change;Municipal Finance;urban resident;subsistence farming;sheep grazing;cattle ranching;commercial development;temporary shelter;meat packing;mining activity;traditional manner;farming method;permanent residence;political change;colonial land;cheap water;



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