Skip to Main Navigation

Economic reform and environmental performance in transition economies (Inglês)

The transition to a market economy is expected to lead to environmental as well as economic improvement. In practice, realization of the expected gains may come slowly, especially for countries where economic reform and growth have lagged. This technical paper reviews progress in environmental trends since transition began. It looks at air and water pollution and health indicators in the region over time, in comparison with world-wide trends and in light of the environmental issues identified in the Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe. As this study emphasizes, economic reform and commitment to introducing environmental regulations and programs are vital for reaching lasting environmental improvements. The report points to the solid progress achieved in the advanced reform economies and to the less encouraging trends in slower-reforming countries. In the latter group, pressures on the environment decreased somewhat during transition only as a consequence of declining economic activity, while persistent problems remained in environmental "hot spots" around high-polluting industrial centers. The report continues and builds on the World Bank's work in analyzing the environmental effects of transition, restructuring, and privatization with a view to identifying priority areas for investment and policy initiatives.


  • Autor

    Hughes, Gordon Lovei, Magda

  • Data do documento


  • TIpo de documento


  • No. do relatório


  • Nº do volume


  • Total Volume(s)


  • País

    Europa e Ásia Central,

  • Região

    Europa e Ásia Central,

  • Data de divulgação


  • Nome do documento

    Economic reform and environmental performance in transition economies

  • Palavras-chave

    participatory assessment of policy reform;emissions of air pollutant;urban air quality management;efficiency of resource use;real gross domestic product;transmission and distribution network;efficient use of energy;impact of climate change;consumption of petroleum product;enforcement of payment discipline;contamination of drinking water;total number of vehicle;reduction in emission;primary energy consumption;hard budget constraint;gdp growth rate;price of coal;rural drinking water;infant mortality rate;world market price;purchasing power parity;ambient air quality;number of vehicles;large industrial consumer;international experiences show;real exchange rate;decline in agriculture;average energy intensity;real interest rate;cleaner production technology;water supply augmentation;restructuring of industry;cost of production;regulation of power;role of technology;collection of tax;water pricing experience;Maintenance of Irrigation;airborne particulate matter;burden of disease;surface water quality;children under age;form of tax;impact of water;dissolved oxygen levels;improving energy efficiency;hot air;educational classroom use;large urban areas;consumption of energy;amounts of energy;types of energy;consumption of coal;positive environmental effects;air pollution problem;Lead in Gasoline;implementation of reform;vehicle emission control;environmental protection efforts;blood lead level;cities in transition;social and environmental;Poverty & Inequality;economic valuation techniques;general price level;unit of output;speed of recovery;mental health problem;emission of dust;liberalization of control;source of fuel;wastewater treatment infrastructure;nominal interest rate;consumption of households;international finance statistic;burden of adjustment;vehicle emission requirement;effect of inflation;centrally planned economy;total energy use;total energy consumption;improvements in efficiency;household energy consumption;total suspended particulates;economic reform;hot spot;fuel use;water pollution;transition economy;Transition economies;sulfur dioxide;dirty water;emissions intensity;market economy;real gdp;economic stability;lead emission;environmental benefit;energy intensities;perverse incentives;industrial plant;Environmental Policy;leaded gasoline;motor gasoline;industrial restructuring;environmental issue;chronic bronchitis;market reform;heating plant;vehicle fleet;industrial sector;nitrogen oxide;environmental performance;environmental intervention;total emissions;Independent States;cleaner fuel;unleaded gasoline;health damage;industrial production;health status;environmental factor;environmental problem;Power Generation;heavy industry;industrial emission;Natural Resources;water bodies;sanitation infrastructure;air emission;economic recession;critical ecosystem;consumption decline;consumption base;severe recession;total consumption;municipal water;metropolitan area;fertilizer use;industrial activity;automobile ownership;price distortion;economic recovery;gas prices;ill health;pollution abatement;marginal impact;pollution load;enterprise sector;average price;urban income;institutional foundation;manufacturing industry;domestic sources;energy conversion;coal burn;environmental ministers;high pollution;industrial enterprise;transition country;stationary sources;public pressure;monetary cost;energy price;vested interests;agricultural enterprise;consumption increase;heavy metal;transition countries;productive sector;municipal building;small country;carbon dioxide;institutional factor;administrative support;motor fuel;small-scale enterprise;research assistance;solid fuel;environmental perspective;premature death;coal combustion;inefficient industries;price adjustment;heating sector;high-sulfur coal;metallurgical plant;environmental initiative;reform effort;study estimate;land degradation;policy strategy;international level;women's health;investment program;price control;market force;agriculture sector;business partner



Versão oficial do documento (pode conter assinaturas, etc.)

  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *A versão do texto é um OCR incorreto e está incluído unicamente em benefício de usuários com conectividade lenta.