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Review of urban air quality in Sub-Saharan Africa region - air quality profile of SSA countries (Inglês)

In Africa, urban outdoor air pollution is responsible for an estimated 49,000 premature deaths annually with indoor use of solid fuels being responsible for eight times this value, the main burden being borne by Sub Saharan African countries. Air pollution, outdoor and indoor, affects the health and life chances of millions of people in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA)every day. There is a link between air pollution and poverty since poor people are exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants and tend to suffer disproportionately from the effects of deteriorating air quality (AQ). Children in cities exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants will more often develop respiratory ailments which prevent them from developing and learning well. As a consequence they will suffer in adult life from low levels of qualifications and skills. The implication of poorly educated children is not only a reduction of quality of their lives but also an obstacle for the economic development of a country as a whole. Rapid urbanization means increase in motorization and economic activity which in turn leads to increased air pollution if countermeasures are not taken. In view these linkages addressing urban AQ in SSA is particularly important. Air pollution in Sub Saharan cities appears to be on the rise with respect to many key pollutants. In some cities where monitoring has been performed levels of air pollution exceed World Health Organization recommended guidelines. The main cause of urban air pollution is the use of fossil fuels in transport, power generation, industry and domestic sectors. In addition, the burning of firewood, agricultural and animal waste also contributes to pollution levels. Pollutant emissions have direct and indirect effects with a wide range of impacts on human health, ecosystems, agriculture and materials. There is a growing need to determine the state of urban AQ and the challenges posed to solve it and identify the most effective measures to protect human health and the environment. Learning from experience and successes in urban AQ management (AQM) from other countries can assists in the formulation and implementation of strategies to achieve better AQ in Sub Saharan Africa. This report compiles the information provided by the 25countries in a harmonized way and gives an in-depth review of AQ in SSA with AQ profile of each country, presenting the country's main current urban AQ issues, emissions standards, ongoing projects, lessons learned from good/bad practices. It was attempted to compile this information also for additional SSA countries from available publications and internet sources.


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    Schwela, Dieter

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    Review of urban air quality in Sub-Saharan Africa region - air quality profile of SSA countries

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    United Nations Environment Programme;urban air quality;urban population growth rates;convention on climate change;compliance with emission standard;ambient air quality standard;efficient use of energy;urban air quality management;emissions of air pollutant;blood lead level;urban air pollution;fuel specification;high risk group;standard operating procedure;transboundary air pollution;outdoor air pollution;solid waste problem;enforcement of law;level of qualification;quality of data;stratospheric ozone depletion;Lead in Gasoline;exchange of good;air pollutant concentration;thermal power station;gross domestic product;management of air;air pollution problem;average trip length;participation of stakeholder;control of vehicle;regulations on emission;command and control;volatile organic compound;public health impact;lack of transparency;health surveillance system;international development agency;basic human right;indoor air pollution;air quality issue;capacity of country;law and regulation;monitoring network;dispersion model;emission inventory;leaded gasoline;stationary sources;industrial source;fuel quality;awareness raising;fact sheet;high concentration;vehicle fleet;rapid assessment;carbon monoxide;vehicle maintenance;health effect;epidemiological study;industrial boiler;industrial plant;open burn;environmental study;adverse health;monitoring device;adult life;public awareness;fuel parameter;emission control;cost-benefit analysis;assessment method;driving force;pollution level;pollutant emission;animal waste;unleaded gasoline;premature death;laboratory work;educated child;life chances;candidate countries;social cost;Power Generation;monitoring procedure;diesel exhaust;baseline data;financial resource;routine monitoring;emission datum;sulphur dioxide;nitrogen oxide;solid fuel;cleaner fuel;environmental goal;high-risk group;institutional set-up;motor gasoline;residential area;obsolete technology;cleaner production;forest fire;agricultural burning;dust emission;anecdotal evidence;fuel oil;respiratory symptom;petroleum product;financial feasibility;sulphur content;motor bike;energy consumer;urban centre;technical committee;participatory approach;spatial coverage;industrial company;emission factor;risk communication;risk perception;institutional mechanism;logical framework;brick kiln;market mechanism;air monitoring;financial sustainability;carcinogenic compound;national health;solar irradiance;urban temperature;cement factories;emission estimate;nitrogen dioxide;uncontrolled fires;transparent manner;tap water;increasing migration;economic instrument;stakeholder involvement;urban growth;fuel standard;cleaner air;potential threat;hybrid vehicle;high particulate;need assessment;significant challenge;commercial areas;commercial activity;local capacity;exhaust emission;energy development;project sustainability;outreach program;non-governmental organization;previous one;qualitative study;monitoring data;industrial facility;sampling method;monitoring stations;monitoring equipment;vehicular emission;Industrial Estate;gaseous compound;urban climate;political will;biological species;pollutant levels;acid precipitation;voluntary initiatives;impact survey;prevention principle;



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