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Policy interventions for technological innovation in developing countries (Inglês)

This paper assesses the potential social pay off of alternative measures that might be taken to promote innovation in LDCs. It is mainly concerned with the general issues of encouraging technical innovation in the nonagricultural sectors. However, it also is focused on the more particular but important question of how to generate innovations that lead to new techniques of production which are better suited than existing ones to the social objectives of employment and greater equality in the distribution of income. Part 1 discusses the process of innovation and describes the skills associated with it. Part 2 sets forth some of the special problems that developing economies encounter in building up innovative skills. Part 3 draws together some of the main implications for policy and explains how priorities for the development of local innovative activities might be determined. Part 4 analyzes the patterns of innovative activity that might be needed in developing economies. Part 5 summarizes the main conclusions and suggests some of the implications of adopting an approach that stems from these conclusions.


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    COOPER, C.

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    Policy interventions for technological innovation in developing countries

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    social point of view;optimal allocation of resources;international division of labor;science policy;supply of raw material;social cost-benefit;technology need;Science and Technology;transfer of technology;process of innovation;concept of innovation;development policy;implications for policy;economies of scale;foreign technology;comparative cost;choice of technique;maintenance and repair;class of transaction;import of technology;net social benefit;reliance on foreign;areas of specialization;sources of technology;competitive market conditions;conflicts of interest;lack of opportunity;policies for innovation;local private sector;kinds of resource;accumulation of experience;second world war;sources of innovation;degree of specialization;terms of sale;land tenure system;choice of technology;innovative capability;local skills;production system;experimental development;informal sector;foreign supplier;local learning;license agreement;engineering design;machinery supplier;advanced country;advanced economy;investment phase;foreign source;innovative process;production line;capital-labor ratio;skill category;product technology;technology supplier;market force;local engineering;local innovation;production process;productive sector;textile machinery;Innovation Policies;agricultural sector;innovation policy;industrial sector;production method;scientific laboratory;electrical industry;skilled artisan;clothing industry;Oil Refining;import technology;industrial branch;integrated system;basic research;electronic technology;capital good;implicit assumption;foreign product;modern sector;commercially viable;factor price;industrial technology;production technique;production technology;local participation;local capability;comparative disadvantage;foreign enterprise;consumption good;construction work;industrial investment;local development;Technology Transfer;skill development;External Economies;export market;local investor;market rate;supply situation;food processing;monopolistic element;monetary cost;mechanical engineering;building material;local knowledge;technical manpower;technological system;mechanical system;machine production;local economy;water engineering;plant level;synthetic rubber;Public Utilities;andean pact;direct intervention;local industry;electrical technology;recurrent payment;organic chemical;competing suppliers;steel work;sugar mill;large enterprise;scientific instrument;technology market;informal enterprise;skill need;fertilizer plant;bakery industry;inorganic chemical;learning process;equal footing;chemical production;institutional obstacles;private investor;limited capacity;formal capital;industrialized economy;social gains;household appliance;agricultural equipment;competitive position;direct purchase;local contractor;railway workshop;aircraft maintenance;construction cost;contract design;local company;repair shop;petroleum cracking;electrical engineering;plant size;comparative advantage;credit policy;Credit policies;small-scale industry;redistributive policy;wage level;Employment Policies;employment policy;political reality;implementing policy;equitable distribution;control of costs;international transaction;capital intensity;political objective;extensive use;negative effect;active investment;government intervention;import-substitution policies;price structure;empirical study;investment cost;labor-intensive production;International Trade;investment resource;technological advancement;utility sector;institutional factor;social demand;economic welfare;political difficulty;external condition;empirical evidence;technology licenses;urban market;industrialized country;Industrialized countries;monopolistic power;product cycle;foreign exchange;bargaining power;production function;resource cost;scientific discovery;foreign competitor;labor-intensive technology;initial contract;international market;industrial research;private enterprise;private decisions;social interest;local manufacturers;innovation investment;import product



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