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Middle-income traps : a conceptual and empirical survey (Inglês)

In recent years, the term "middle-income trap" has entered common parlance in the development policy community. The term itself often has not been precisely defined in the incipient literature. This paper discusses in more detail definitional issues on the so-called middle-income trap. The paper presents evidence in terms of both absolute and relative thresholds. To get a better understanding of whether the performance of the middle-income trap has been different from other income categories, the paper examines historical transition phases in the inter-country distribution of income based on previous work in the literature. Transition matrix analysis provides little support for the idea of a middle-income trap. Analysis of cross-country patterns of growth provides additional support for the conclusions in the paper, which closes with a general discussion of potential policy implications.


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    Im,Fernando Gabriel, Rosenblatt,David

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    Documento de trabalho sobre pesquisa de políticas

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    Regiões Mundiais,

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    Middle-income traps : a conceptual and empirical survey

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    relative income;transition matrix;Upper Middle Income Countries;limited access to capital;per capita growth rate;average per capita income;per capita term;rate of growth;market exchange rate;business cycle fluctuation;development policy community;standard of living;adult literacy rate;modern economic history;child mortality rate;economic growth rate;private financial market;global supply chain;determinants of growth;national innovation system;growth and development;natural resource exploitation;difference in income;transition probability matrix;purchasing power parity;global poverty measurement;resource rich countries;net secondary enrollment;relative income distribution;income category;income bracket;income class;empirical evidence;poverty trap;debt crisis;transition phase;world income;household income;absolute definition;reference point;Learning and Innovation Credit;middle class;previous work;present evidence;absolute income;constant dollar;human capital;matrix notation;country classification;positive growth;open access;financial crisis;stable growth;convergence process;robustness check;macroeconomic crisis;adjustment factor;empirical regularity;transition period;previous one;high frequency;productivity growth;global scale;Exchange Rates;median income;household level;social indicator;real gdp;reference level;multiple equilibria;knowledge externality;economics literature;empirical literature;world distribution;Macroeconomic Stability;descriptive statistic;linear equation;transition path;relative distribution;negative shock;live birth;national currency;fixed proportion;market failure;primary sector;steady state;life expectancy;technological frontier;Infant Mortality;welfare economics;social cohesion;special form;Economic Policy;parameter value;



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