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Institutional development : incentives to performance (Inglês)

Economic progress requires institutions with the ability to make effective use of the human and financial resources available. In developing countries, however, government agencies, public enterprises, and other public and private organizations often lack that ability. The author illustrates the importance of institutional performance in economic development and explores ways to increase the effectiveness of such institutions. Firmly grounded on contemporary theories, the book indicates that many of the commonly accepted principles of management and organization need to be modified, and new approaches developed. It describes various measures that managers and governments can adopt to improve performance in individual enterprises, sectors of the economy, and the country as a whole. He discusses in depth the managerial approach used in the training and visit system of agricultural extension. Ways of balancing economic, technical, and institutional factors in program design and reducing the complexity of projects are also considered. The author examines the reasons usually cited for their successes and failures. He then introduces two alternative factors that seem to offer better explanations of the patterns of institutional development. The first is specificity; the second factor is competition, which in addition to the traditional economic concept includes various pressures that can serve as surrogates for competition in the absence of a competitive market.


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    Israel, Arturo

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    Institutional development : incentives to performance

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    increase in energy price;Urban and Rural Development;ex post evaluation;development finance company;level of performance;integrated rural development;central government agency;agricultural development bank;physical development;concept of effectiveness;institutional performance;ministries of education;water supply agency;factor of production;lack of competition;sectoral adjustment loan;allocation of resource;basis of information;wages and salary;number of attempts;kinds of knowledge;rural extension service;construction of building;Construction Building;Population and Health;water management system;provision of service;agricultural credit institution;multiple regression analysis;structural adjustment loan;competition among individual;Urban Water Supply;degree of competition;degrees of freedom;highly skilled personnel;foreign aid policy;choice of technology;long gestation period;alleviation of poverty;institution building;competitive activity;power company;investment program;oil palm;negative effect;operational efficiency;political turmoil;industrial activity;telecommunications agency;Economic Policy;urban development;organizational structure;advanced country;conceptual framework;exogenous factor;management technique;competitive atmosphere;personnel management;political intervention;external competition;interagency coordination;institutional improvement;industrial plant;explanatory variable;geographical dispersion;allocative efficiency;public entity;financial matter;management science;financial aspect;policy regard;civil works;Agricultural Extension;institutional weakness;highway agency;financial resource;pipeline operation;traditional sector;cultural reality;high correlation;oil refinery;discriminant analysis;cultural pattern;industrial standard;cultural context;education agency;operational performance;political difficulty;coordination problem;agricultural program;political environment;effective marketing;free press;political problem;strategy formulation;organizational focus;confidential nature;national highway;industrialized society;donor agencies;evaluation study;internal factor;industrial sector;commercial activity;industrial credit;traditional investment;professional experience;agricultural activity;track rehabilitation;community level;efficient institution;high ratio;technical school;intrinsic characteristic;sound management;steel mill;institutional factor;societal systems;railway company;farmers' cooperative;operational objectives;institutional analysis;Management Systems;efficient investment;personnel policy;methodological problems;pipeline company;local branch;social activities;foreign trade;telephone system;competition policy;competitive environment;organizational change;price distortion;financial analyst;human behavior;managerial capacity;market competition;rural area;management tool;external standard;institutional problem;economic crisis;management institute;program finance;rolling stock;irrigation system;highway program;poverty alleviation;worldwide recession;academic community;irrigation canal;national association;agricultural agency;management method;Gas Pipeline;potential contribution;operational work;sabbatical leave;anonymous reviewer;Research Support;organization theory;national strategy;operational strategy;Public Utilities;cultural change;development theory;social institution;political milieu;local traditions;common sense;financial activities;investment component;administrative capacity;institutional objectives;cultural environment;salary levels;political support;baseline data;cultural trait;agricultural bank;industrial bank;



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