Skip to Main Navigation

Do Immigrants Shield the Locals Exposure to COVID-Related Risks in the European Union (English)

This paper investigates the relationship between immigration and the exposure of native workers to the health and labor-market risks arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. Using various measures of occupational risks based on European Union labor force survey data, the paper finds that immigrant workers, especially those from lower-income member countries in Eastern Europe or from outside the EU, face greater exposure than their native-born peers to both income and health-shocks related to COVID-19. The paper also shows that native workers living in regions with a higher concentration of immigrants are less exposed to some of the income and health risks associated with the pandemic. To assess whether this relationship is causal, a Bartik-type shift-share instrument is used to control for potential bias and unobservable factors that would lead migrants to self-select into more vulnerable occupations across regions. The results show that the presence of immigrant workers has a causal effect in reducing the exposure of native workers to various risks by enabling the native-born workers to move into jobs that could be undertaken from the safety of their homes or with lower face-to-face interactions. The effects on the native-born population are more pronounced for high-skilled workers than for low-skilled workers, and for women than for men. The paper does not find a significant effect of immigration on wages and employment — indicating that the effects are mostly driven by a reallocation of natives from less safe jobs to safer jobs.

Details

  • Author

    Bossavie,Laurent Loic Yves, Garrote Sanchez,Daniel, Makovec,Mattia, Ozden,Caglar

  • Document Date

    2020/12/16

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS9500

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    EU Accession Countries,

  • Region

    Europe and Central Asia,

  • Disclosure Date

    2020/12/16

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Do Immigrants Shield the Locals ? Exposure to COVID-Related Risks in the European Union

  • Keywords

    Occupation; migrant; native worker; Natives; million people; low levels of education; immigrant worker; exposure to health risks; labor force survey data; employment rate of immigrant; local labor market condition; constant elasticity of substitution; low labor force participation; work at home; free movement of workers; labor market outcome; number of migrants; distribution of immigrants; number of immigrants; fixed effect; country of origin; high risk occupation; network of immigrant; inflow of immigrants; flow of migrants; parameter of interest; distribution of workers; internal labor mobility; compensating wage differential; labor market impact; country fixed effect; gender wage gap; effect on employment; effects of immigration; number of jobs; impact of immigration; supply of skill; immigration on wages; impact of migration; size of immigration; general equilibrium model; female migrant; education level; occupational choice; destination country; conceptual framework; income risk; occupational exposure; comparative advantage; empirical analysis; language skill; manual occupations; economic vulnerability; Homebased Work; migration status; risk exposure; causal effect; first stage; working-age population; alternative instruments; wage effect; exclusion restriction; migration flow; regional characteristic; positive correlation; occupational category; correlation coefficient; imperfect substitute; wage distribution; predictive power; total employment; high concentration; migration inflows; local demand; coefficient estimate; native population; health shock; geographic area; employment outcome; unemployment risk; female workers; descriptive statistic; native women

Downloads

COMPLETE REPORT

Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • Official PDF
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.

Citation

Bossavie,Laurent Loic Yves Garrote Sanchez,Daniel Makovec,Mattia Ozden,Caglar

Do Immigrants Shield the Locals Exposure to COVID-Related Risks in the European Union (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9500,COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/634461608129241833/Do-Immigrants-Shield-the-Locals-Exposure-to-COVID-Related-Risks-in-the-European-Union